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Guide to Diabetes

Your Health Profile 

At a Glance: Do you know your numbers? (Profile from

Health Profile - Desmond Copywrite

Normal Blood Glucose range

Normal In healthy individuals the blood glucose levels range between 4-7 mmol/L

There are several blood tests that are done to determine/confirm if you have diabetes this usually involves measuring your  glucose levels when you wake up before you have had anything to eat or drink (Fasting) and tests before and 2 hours after drinking a sugary drink. (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test OGTT)  (This image is copyright of DESMOND)

Fasting Blood Glucose

  • Normal fasting blood glucose are below 6.1 mmols/l



  • Your fasting blood glucose levels are between 6.1-6.9 mmols/L also know as Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) higher than normal but not enough to be diabetes



  • Blood glucose levels are equal to or above 7.00 mmols/l this is diabetes although – a repeat test is required to confirm diagnosis. 

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

  • Test 1: Fasting blood glucose (target below 6.1 mmol/l)
  • Test 2: Two hours after consumption of 400ml of sugary drink (target below 7.8mmol/l)

Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)

  • Blood glucose levels are equal to or above 7.8 mmol/l but below 11.0 mmol/l at the two hour test. 


What is Your diabetes Risk? Take the test  

If you do have Diabetes

Hypoglycaemia "hypo" low blood glucose levels: below 4mmol/l (must be treated)

Hyperglycaemia high blood glucose levels: above 7mmol/l

These are both determined by glucose monitoring

Waist Circumference: should be less than

Obese - waist
  • 35 inches (90cm)- Asian Men
  • 37 inches (94cm)- White Men
  • 31.5 inches (80cm)- Asian Women
  • 31.5 Inches (80cm)- White Women

HBA1C Target

  • Less than 7% or 48mmol/mol

High Blood Pressure can affect your diabetes

  • Blood Pressure: Below 140/80mmHg for a healthy person
  • Below 130/70mmHg for people with kidney problems


eGFR –Kidney Function: Diabetes can cause Kidney disease

  • 90ml/min or above


  • Total Cholesterol: Less than 4.0mmol/L
  • Bad Cholesterol LDL: Less than 3.0mmol/L
  • Good Cholesterol HDL: More than 2.5mmol/L


What's your Foot Disease Risk?

Diabetes can cause foot disease, which can have complications including amputation

  • Low - No foot problems
  • Moderate - Some loss of sensation or pulses or demority or infection
  • High - Severe deformity, loss of sensation and other seriuos complication

Whether you have diabetes or not it’s important to know your numbers. ASK YOUR GP!